Caste Based Discrimination |
Legacy Chaturvarna |
Economic Discrimination |
Women Discriminated |
<Caste Based Discrimination>
How cruel becomes chanakya here..., for the same crime committed Shudra is burnt alive...
Sudra burnt alive
“A Kshatriya who commits adultery with an unguarded Bráhman woman shall be punished with the highest amercement; a Vaisya doing the same shall be deprived of the whole of his property; and a Súdra shall be burnt alive wound round in mats” [ArthaSahstra]
If at all someone who is Veda parangatha, can he decide such a cruel punishment?Kautilya intelligently with below law ensures Sudra not to be raised to the level of Brahmana
That limb of a Súdra with which he strikes a Bráhman shall be cut off. ” [ArthaSahstra]
When a Súdra calls himself a Bráhman, or when any person steals the property of gods, conspires against the king, or destroys both the eyes of another, he shall either have his eyes destroyed by the application of poisonous ointment, or pay a fine of 800 panas [ArthaSahstra]How will caste matter here, sudra receives death punishment, where as Brahmana receives a simpler punishment..... Adultery is adultery...
Adultery is adultery
A man who commits adultery with a woman of low caste shall be banished with prescribed mark branded on his fore-head, or shall be degraded to the same caste. A Súdra or a svapáka who commits adultery with a woman of low caste shall be put to death, while the woman shall have her ears and nose cut off. [ArthaSahstra]
No fresh liquor other than bad liquor shall be sold below its price. Bad liquor may be sold elsewhere or given to slaves or workmen in lieu of wages; or it may form the drink of beasts for draught or the subsistence of hogs [ArthaSahstra].<Legacy Chaturvarna>
Here Kautilya clearly throws the noble conception of chaturvarna into fire Kautilya probably toughens the stand of Manushastra
Sons begotten by a Súdra on women of higher castes are Ayogava, Kshatta, and Chandála; by a Vaisya, Mágadha, and Vaidehaka; and by aKshatriya, Súta...
Sudra need not get alphabetical knowledge?
The duty of the Brahman is study, teaching...Here Kautilya puts a stamp to his previous above mentioned law....and says Shudra must adhere to occupation.
That of a Kshatriya is study, performance of sacrifice.....
That of a Sudra is the serving of twice-born (dvijati), agriculture, cattle-breeding, and trade (varta), the profession of artisans and court-bards (karukusilavakarma) [ArthaSahstra]
This people (loka) consisting of four castes and four orders of religious life, when governed by the king with his sceptre, will keep to their respective paths, ever devotedly adhering to their respective duties and occupations. ) [ArthaSahstra]
A Vainya becomes a Rathakára, chariot-maker, by profession. Members of this caste shall marry among themselves. Both in customs and avocations they shall follow their ancestors.
They may either become Súdras or embrace any other lower castes excepting Chandálas. [ArthaSahstra]
Here Chanakya clearly curtails freedom of speech. With Buddhism being in peak, people were questioning Vedic rituals which were costly and not so meaningful according to Upanishads also.
To avoid such things.. below law was framed
If among Bráhmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Súdras, and outcastes (antávasáyins), any one of a lower caste abuses the habits of one of a higher caste, the fines imposed shall increase from 3 panas upwards (commencing from the lowest caste). If any one of a higher caste abuses one of a lower caste, fines imposed shall decrease from 2 panas. [ArthaSahstra]
When a person steals or destroys cocks, mangoose, cats, dogs or pigs, of less than 54 panas in value, he shall have the edge of his nose cut off or pay a fine of 54 panas. If these animals belong to either Chandalas or wild tribes half of the above fine shall be mposed. . [ArthaSahstra]<Women Discriminated>
If a widow marries any man other than of her father-in-law's selection (svasuraprátilo-myenanivishtá), she shall forfeit whatever had been given to her by her father-in-law and her husband.[arthashastra]
Again Male Domination:
If she brings forth only females, he has to wait for twelve years. Then if he is desirous to have sons, he may marry another for twelve years.
If under any other excuse than danger, a woman gets out of her husband's house, she shall be fined 6 panas. If she gets out against the order (of her husband) to the contrary, she shall be fined 12 panas. If she goes beyond her neighboring house (prativesagrihatigatáyah), she shall be fined 6 panas
Where is the freedom for prostitute son here, if he wants liberty he has to pay money. Is not it slavery
A prostitute shall pay 24,000 panas as ransom to regain her liberty; and a prostitute's son 12,000 panas. [ArthaSahstra]Chanakya supports prostitution in temples, but Gandhi condemns it. Devadasi’s belong to lower castes, thus chanakya approved priests of enjoying women in temple premises which was pre existing. If he was great he could have stopped it…
Prostitutes (devadási) who have ceased to attend temples on service shall be employed to cut wool, fibre, cotton, panicle (túla), hemp, and flax. [ArthaSahstra]<Blind Belief>
Chanakya blindly believes Karmic philosophy and declares that a shudra can never get elevated because, he can only carry forward sin birth after birth. Thus Kautilya ensures with this tricky law that Sudra is a sinner by birth.
A Súdra witness thus:--„Whatever thy merits are, in thy former birth or after thy death, shall they go to the king and whatever sins the king may have committed, shall they go to thee,if thou utterest falsehood; fines also shall be levied on thee, for facts as they have been heard or seen will certainly be subsequently revealed.?[ArthaSahstra]